Thailand is set to lose duty-free access for $1.3 billion in exports to the U.S. market today, six months after Washington warned it would pull back on trade privileges unless the country committed to more labor rights reforms.
Analysts expect the new duties to do little damage directly, however.
The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative said Oct. 25 Thailand had “yet to take steps to provide internationally recognized worker rights in a number of important areas,” six years after U.S. unions raised the issue. It said the U.S. would restore duties on just under one-third of the $4.4 billion worth of Thai imports eligible for duty-free treatment under the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences after six months.
The U.S. Embassy in Bangkok told VOA last week the cuts to Thailand’s trade privileges would go ahead as planned.
Rights groups have long accused Thailand of profiting off rampant human trafficking and debt bondage among the millions of migrant workers who help drive the country’s economy, especially those in its multibillion-dollar seafood industry.
In a report on the industry last month, the International Labor Organization said working conditions in Thailand were improving but not by much.
“Serious abuses persist for a significant number of workers surveyed,” it said, noting that injuries are still common, employers still use debt to control employees, and migrants are still barred by law from forming their own unions.
Phil Robertson, deputy Asia director for Human Rights Watch, said Thailand’s government had done virtually nothing to address USTR’s outstanding concerns in the past six months and welcomed Washington’s decision to follow through on trade benefit cuts.
“These are trade benefits that were voluntarily extended to Thailand based on certain conditions. Those conditions are that Thailand respects labor rights, including freedom of association and right to collectively bargain, and there is plenty of evidence to show Bangkok has not reformed its highly deficient labor law or improved implementation of various laws to protect labor rights,”
Phil Robertson, deputy Asia director for Human Rights Watch
According to U.S. Census Bureau data, the $1.3 billion worth of goods losing duty-free access amounts to less than 4% of the value of U.S. goods imported from Thailand last year, and a fraction of a percent of all of Thailand’s global exports that year.
Harrison Cheng, an associate director for the consulting firm Control Risks who follows Thailand, said he too was expecting the GSP cuts to have “a rather small impact on the economy.”
But he said that impact, however modest, would be amplified by the heavy damage the coronavirus pandemic was…